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A US-based expert has said that the upcoming Lok Sabha elections of 2019 will be the most expensive in Indianhistory.

一位美國專家表示,即將到來的2019年印度人民議院選舉將是印度歷史上最昂貴的選舉。



"If the 2014 Lok Sabha elections costan estimated $5 billion, here is little doubt the 2019
election will easily surpass that MilanVaishnav, a senior fellow at a top American think-tank

“如果2014年的印度人民議院選舉花費了50億美元,那么毫無疑問,2019年的印度大選會輕松的超過這個數字,米蘭.瓦什納夫,一個來自美國頂級智囊團的高級研究員說道。

The upcoming general elections in Indiawill be the most expensive in Indian history and perhaps one of the mostexpensive ever held in any democratic country, a US-based expert has said.

即將到來的大選可能是印度歷史上最昂貴的一次選舉,而且也有可能在所有抿主國家里面是最昂貴的,美國專家說道。

The Election Commission of India is soonexpected to announce its schedule for the polls to be held to elect 543 membersof the Lok Sabha.

印度選舉委員會很快就會宣布舉行選舉的時間表,選舉543名人民議院議員。



Noting that the 2014 general electionscosted USD 5 billion, Vaishnav said it was not inconceivable that overallexpenditure will double again this year.

注意到2014年印度大選花費了50億美元,瓦什納夫說,讓人不敢想象的是,今年的競選總開支將再次翻倍。

"The exorbitant cost of Indianelections has become a cardinal fact of the Indian political economy that iswidely acknowledged and lamented - including by politicians and their donors.But it is not simply the material outlays that grab one's attention, it is themanner in which the money flows," he said.

“印度選舉的高昂成本已經成為印度政治經濟的一個基本事實,這一事實得到了廣泛的承認和批評,包括政治家和他們的捐助者。但吸引人們注意力的不僅僅是物質支出,還有資金流動的方式,”他說道。

Vaishnav rued that in India there isvirtually zero transparency when it comes to political contributions.

讓瓦什納夫感到遺憾的是,在印度,政治捐款幾乎沒有透明度。

It is next to impossible to either identifywho has donated money to a politician or party or to figure out from where apolitician has obtained his or her campaign funds, he said.

他說,幾乎不可能確定是誰向一個政治家或政黨捐款,也不可能確定一個政治家從哪里獲得了競選資金。

Very few donors are willing to disclosetheir political giving for fear of retribution should their preferred party notcome to power, he noted.

他指出,很少有捐助者愿意公開他們的政治獻金,因為他們擔心如果他們支持的政黨沒有上臺,他們會受到報復。

The system of electoral bond, brought in bythe current government, has not helped either, he argued. The system lackstransparency, he said.

他認為,由現任政府引入的選舉資金制度也沒有起到任何作用。他說,該系統缺乏透明度。

Specific data can be hard to pin down, butcosts are rising in general as constituency sizes increase and more candidatesjoin the fray, said Simon Chauchard, a Columbia University lecturer who hasfollowed elections in India.

哥倫比亞大學教授西蒙喬查德表示,具體的數據可能難以確定,但隨著選區規模的增加以及更多候選人加入競爭,總體上成本是正在上升的。

Social media spending is likely to bedramatically higher, surging to about 50 billion rupees from 2.5 billion rupeesin 2014, Simon said. His group-which bases its projections on field interviews,government data, contracts given out, and other research-also expects a jump inthe use of helicopters, buses and other transportation by traveling candidatesand party workers.

西蒙認為,在社交媒體上的支出可能會大幅增加,從2014年的25億盧比飆升至約500億盧比。他的團隊根據實地采訪、政府數據、合同和其他的研究做出了這項預測,他們還預計,候選人和黨務工作者在使用直升機、公共汽車和其他交通工具方面會有一個飛躍提升。

Indian politicians feel "you've got todo new things, and crazier things, and bigger things and louder things,"Mr Chauchard said. "It's a bunch of panicky candidates throwing moneyaround to voters but also to vendors selling all kinds of stuff useful in apolitical campaign."

西蒙.喬查德說,印度政客們覺得“你必須做一些新奇的事情,更瘋狂的事情,更大的事情,更容易引起轟動的事情。”人心惶惶的候選人把錢投向選民,他們出售在政治競選中有用的各種東西。

Here's a look at where some of the moneygoes:

下面是一些競選資金的去向:

Can Goats Help Win Votes?

山羊能幫助候選人獲得選票嗎?



To attract a crowd, some politicians mayneed to offer a box of food filled with biryani or chicken curry that can betoo expensive for average citizens. That's not to mention money needed forfirecrackers, chairs, microphones, security and vehicles to ferry theparticipants back and forth.

為了吸引人群,一些政客可能需要提供一些包括印度菜或咖喱雞的食物,這對普通公民來說太昂貴了,而且還得有為鞭炮、椅子、麥克風、安保和車輛往返接送參與者花費的錢。

Dummy Candidates

假的候選人

India's Election Commission has long warnedabout dummy candidates: nominating someone with the same name as a front runnerto confuse voters and split the vote.

印度選舉委員會早就對假的候選人提出過警告:提名一位與競選領跑者一樣名字的候選人,以迷惑選民并分裂選票。

In populous states like Uttar Pradesh,where a name can identify the caste or clan of a particular candidate, thistrick can be especially helpful. In 2014, actress Hema Malini was up againsttwo other Hema Malinis, the Hindustan Times reported.

在北方邦這樣人口稠密的州,一個名字可以識別出某個特定候選人的種姓或家族,這種伎倆特別有用。《印度斯坦時報》報道說,2014年,女演員赫瑪馬利尼與另外兩位同樣叫做赫瑪馬利尼的人進行競爭。

But even fielding dummy candidates costmoney. The expense can go as high as 120 million rupees, according to aninvestigation by India Today magazine in 2016. Parties also register multiplecandidates to get around legal caps on how much an individual can spend, withthe most popular member getting most of the resources.

但即使是派出假的候選人也是要花錢的。據《今日印度》雜志2016年的一項調查顯示,這筆費用可能高達1.2億盧比。各個政黨還會登記多個候選人,以避開關于個人可以花費多少資金的法定上限,最受支持的候選人會獲得大部分的資源。

Campaign spending by political partiesaccounts for almost all India's election outlays. But the Election Commissionhas also faced large costs organising an election with polling stations runningfrom 15,000 feet above sea level in the Himalayas and one for a sole hermitdeep in the jungles of Western India.

政黨的競選開支幾乎占了印度選舉開支的全部。但是選舉委員會也面臨著巨大的成本,他們組織了一次選舉,在喜馬拉雅山海拔15000英尺的地方設立投票站,在印度西部叢林深處設立一個獨立的投票站。

India's budget has allocated 2.62 billionrupees to the Election Commission this fiscal year, a new high. Some of thatmay be used for elephants to carry electronic voting machines to relativelyinaccessible regions, and boats to ferry men and materials across the mightyBrahmaputra river in the northeast.

印度預算部門今年向選舉委員會撥款26.2億盧比,創下了新高。其中一些可能被用于攜帶電子投票機到相對難以接近的地區,以及用船只運送人員和物資穿過東北部的雅魯藏布江。