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Goats-for-votes pose India deficit risk aspoor lack toilets

當窮人還缺乏廁所時,山羊投票給印度帶來了赤字風險



Clara Mary lights an oil lamp in herone-room shack, revealing a 14-inch colour TV sitting on a blue plastic chairthat she hasn’t been able to turn on since the Tamil Nadu government gave it toher three years ago.

克拉拉·瑪麗坐在一把藍色的塑料椅子上,她那間只有一個房間的小屋子里點著一盞油燈,里面有一臺14英寸的彩色電視機,自從泰米爾納德邦政府三年前把這臺電視機給了她之后,她就從來沒有打開過。

“I don’t have any electricity, so I don’t know what to do with thesethings," Mary, a forty-year-old mother of four, said from the slum insouthern India, where naked children played in garbage next to rats meanderingthrough raw sewage. “We just want basic amenities. We don’t want anyluxuries."

“我沒有電,所以我不知道怎么處理這個事情,”作為四個孩子的母親,40歲的瑪麗在印度南部的貧民窟里說道。在那里,赤身裸體的孩子在垃圾堆里玩耍,旁邊到處是在未經處理的污水中漫步的老鼠。“我們只想要基本的便利設施,我們不想要任何奢侈品。”



“It’s allabout instant gratification, and the voters are as culpable as the politiciansin all of this," said M.R. Venkatesh, a Chennai-based independent analystwho has written a book about Indian politics. “If you have to give everyoneclean drinking water and schooling, it’s not going to happen in an instant,whereas if I give you a fan, then it’s easier."

“這一切都是因為容易滿足,在這里面選民和政客都是罪魁禍首,”曾寫過一本關于印度政治書籍的金奈獨立分析師卡塔什說。“給所有人提供干凈的飲用水和學校教育,這是沒法在短時間內做到的,但如果只是給你一個風扇,那就很容易了。”

India’s subsidy bill rose five-fold in thepast decade under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s ruling Congress party toRs2.6 trillion ($43 billion) a year. In the same period, the Indian economy hasonly doubled in size, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

在印度總理辛格執政的國大黨領導下,印度的補貼在過去十年里增長了五倍,達到了每年2.6萬億盧比(430億美元)。據國際貨幣基金組織稱,同一時期印度的經濟規模只翻了一番。

Polls show Modi’s BJP winning the mostseats while falling short of a majority, which would make him reliant onregional parties such as AIADMK to form a government. The BJP, while saying itwill continue the world’s largest food programme providing cheap grain for thepoor, said in its manifesto that it would strictly implement fiscal discipline.

民調顯示,莫迪領導的人民黨在贏得最多席位的同時,并沒有達到占據議會多數席位的標準,這使得他依賴于和像AIDMK這樣的地區政黨組建聯合政府。印度人民黨在其宣言中表示,將嚴格執行財政紀律政策,同時表示將繼續實施世界上最大的為窮人提供廉價糧食的計劃。



The AIADMK is projecting its leader, formerfilm actress J. Jayalalithaa, as a future prime minister. Campaign posters inthe state depict world leaders such as President Barack Obama and Sri Lanka PresidentMahinda Rajapaksa bowing down to her.

AIDMK計劃將其領導人、前電影女演員賈亞拉利塔提名為未來的總理。該邦的競選海報描繪了世界領導人,如奧巴馬總統和斯里蘭卡總統拉賈帕克薩向她鞠躬。

Every poor Indian household would get fourgoats, a cow, solar panels and cable television if the party takes power. Poorwomen will get electric blenders, fans and 4 grams of gold if they are gettingmarried.

如果該黨掌握權利,每個貧窮的印度家庭都會得到四只山羊、一頭牛、太陽能電池板和有線電視。貧窮的女人結婚后會得到電動攪拌機、電風扇和4克黃金。

“These are important welfare programmes because people at the lowerrungs of society cannot afford these things," said B.V. Ramanaa, an AIADMKleader and the state’s minister for revenue. Rural families spend longs daysworking hard in the fields. After work they need some comfort.

“這些都是重要的福利計劃,因為社會底層的人負擔不起這些東西,”AIDMK領導人、國家財政部長拉馬納彎說。農村家庭花了很長時間在田里辛勤勞動,下班后他們需要一些安慰。

The AIADMK is forecast to win as many as 21of Tamil Nadu’s 39 seats, making it the fourth-biggest party in the 543-memberparliament, according to an opinion poll published this month by CNN-IBN. TheBJP and its allies would win as many as 246 seats, short of the 272 needed fora majority, it said.

根據CNN-IBN本月公布的一項民意調查,預計AIADMK將贏得泰米爾納德邦39個席位中的21個席位,成為擁有543名議員的議院中的第四大政黨。印度人民黨及其盟友將贏得多達246個席位,低于多數黨所需的272個席位。

S. Subramaniam Balaji, a Chennai-basedlawyer, petitioned Election Commission of India (EC) and Indian courts to stopthe giveaways. “The handouts constitute bribes and are illegal because theIndian constitution says government spending must be for the public, notindividuals," he said.

一位來自金奈的律師,薩布拉曼尼亞.巴拉吉,請求印度選舉委員會和印度法院禁止這些贈品。他說:“施舍構成賄賂,這是非法的,因為印度憲法規定政府開支必須是面向公共的,而不是面向個人。”

“The government doesn’t have an infinite amount of money,"Balaji said in an interview in Chennai, formerly known as Madras. “If we arespending on these programmes, we are neglecting far more important areas."

巴拉吉在金奈接受采訪時說:“政府不可能有無限的資金。如果我們把錢花在這些項目上,我們就會忽略更重要的領域。”



“When we got the television, we thought that we would get electricityas well but it never arrived," Mary said, standing by her husband. “We arekeeping the television in the hope that one day we can turn it on. That wouldsignal we finally have a better life." Bloomberg

瑪麗站在她丈夫身邊說:“當我們拿到電視的時候,我們以為我們也能得到電力,但它沒有。”“我們一直希望有一天我們能把電視打開。這意味著我們最終會過上更好的生活。