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論壇地址:http://www.ciqjm.icu/bbs/thread-485342-1-1.html



Daily life aboard the International Space Station moves fast. Really fast. Traveling at approximately 17,000 miles per hour, 300 miles above the Earth, astronauts watch 16 sunrises and sunsets every “day” while floating around in a box with a handful of people they depend on for survival.

國際空間站上的日常生活節奏很快,非常快。宇航員們以每小時17000英里的速度在離地球300英里的高空飛行,“每天”都要觀看16次日出和日落,與他們賴以生存的少數人一起漂浮在一個艙體里。

One need look no further than Hollywood blockbusters like “The Martian,” “Gravity” and “Interstellar” for futuristic visions of life beyond Earth as we venture longer and deeper into outer space. But what about the human body’s response to real-life spaceflight – what are the health effects? Will space travelers age at different rates than those of us on Earth? Just how adaptable to the space environment are we?

只要看看好萊塢大片《火星救援》、《地心引力》和《星際穿越》就知道了,隨著我們向外太空探索的時間越來越長,探索的深度也越來越深,我們可以看到關于地球以外生活的未來愿景。但是,人體對現實太空飛行的反應如何呢?對健康有什么影響?太空旅行者的衰老速度會和我們地球上的人不同嗎?我們對太空環境的適應性如何?



The NASA TWINS Study represents the most comprehensive view of the human body’s response to space flight ever conducted. Results will guide future studies and personalized approaches for uating health effects of individual astronauts for years to come.

美國國家航空航天局的雙胞胎研究代表了人類對太空飛行反應的最全面的看法。研究結果將指導未來的研究和評估宇航員個人健康影響的個性化方法。

As a cancer biologist at Colorado State University I study the impact of radiation exposure on human cells. As part of the TWINS Study, I was particularly interested in uating how the ends of the chromosomes, called telomeres, were altered by a year in space.

作為科羅拉多州立大學的癌癥生物學家,我研究了輻射對人體細胞的影響。作為雙胞胎研究的一部分,我特別感興趣的是評估染色體的末端,稱為端粒,是如何在一年太空中被改變的。

Teasing apart health effects of space living

分析太空生活對健康的影響

NASA put out a call and selected 10 peer-reviewed investigations from around the country for the TWINS Study. Studies included molecular, physiological and behavioral measures, and for the first time ever in astronauts, “omics”-based studies. Some teams uated the impact of space on the genome – the entire complement of DNA in a cell (genomics). Other teams examined which genes were turned on and producing a molecule called mRNA (transcriptomics). Some studies focused on how chemical modifications – which do not alter the DNA code – affected the regulation of the genes (epigenomics). Some researchers explored the proteins produced in the cells (proteomics), whereas others scrutinized the products of metabolism (metabolomics).

美國國家航空航天局發出呼吁,從全國各地挑選了10項經過同行評議的調查,進行雙胞胎研究。研究包括分子、生理和行為測量,并首次在宇航員中進行基于“組學”的研究。一些團隊評估了空間對基因組的影響——細胞中DNA的全部補體(基因組學)。其他研究小組研究了哪些基因被激活并產生了一種叫做mRNA的分子(轉錄組學)。一些研究集中在化學修飾(不改變DNA代碼)如何影響基因的調控(表觀基因組學)。一些研究人員研究細胞中產生的蛋白質(蛋白質組學),而另一些研究人員則研究代謝產物(代謝組學)。



Even so, the question of spaceflight-associated aging and the accompanying risk of developing age-related diseases like dementia, cardiovascular disease and cancer – during or after a mission – is an important one, and one that we aimed to address directly with our study of telomere length.

即便如此,在執行任務期間或之后,與航天飛行相關的衰老問題以及伴隨而來的罹患老年癡呆癥、心血管疾病和癌癥等與年齡相關疾病的風險,仍然是一個重要問題,我們的目標是通過對端粒長度的研究直接解決這個問題。

Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes that protect them from damage and from “fraying” – much like the end of a shoestring. Telomeres are critical for maintaining chromosome and genome stability. However, telomeres naturally shorten as our cells divide, and so also as we age. The rate at which telomeres shorten over time is influenced by many factors, including oxidative stress and inflammation, nutrition, physical activity, psychological stresses and environmental exposures like air pollution, UV rays and ionizing radiation. Thus, telomere length reflects an individual’s genetics, experiences and exposures, and so are informative indicators of general health and aging.

端粒是染色體的末端,保護它們免受損傷和“磨損”——很像鞋帶的末端。端粒對于維持染色體和基因組的穩定性至關重要。然而,端粒會隨著細胞分裂而自然縮短,隨著年齡的增長也會如此。端粒隨時間縮短的速度受到許多因素的影響,包括氧化應激和炎癥、營養、身體活動、心理壓力以及空氣污染、紫外線和電離輻射等環境暴露。因此,端粒長度反映了一個人的基因、經歷和暴露程度,也反映了一般健康和衰老的信息指標。

Telomeres and aging

端粒和衰老

Our study proposed that the unique stresses and out-of-this-world exposures the astronauts experience during spaceflight – things like isolation, microgravity, high carbon dioxide levels and galactic cosmic rays – would accelerate telomere shortening and aging. To test this, we uated telomere length in blood samples received from both twins before, during and after the one year mission.

我們的研究表明,宇航員在太空飛行中所經歷的獨特的壓力和外界的暴露——比如隔離、微重力、高二氧化碳水平和銀河宇宙射線——會加速端粒縮短和老化。為了測試這一點,我們評估了雙胞胎在執行任務前、中、后一年的血液樣本中的端粒長度。



The long-term health effects of long duration spaceflight are yet to be determined, but the TWINS Study represents a landmark step in humankind’s journey to the moon, Mars and beyond…and to making science fiction science fact.

長時間的太空飛行對健康的長期影響還有待確定,但雙胞胎的研究代表著人類在月球、火星和更遠的地方旅行的里程碑式的一步……并使科幻小說成為科學事實。